Game of loans

By Paul Widdop, Manchester Metropolitan University 

Alex Bond, Leeds Metropolitan University 

and Daniel Parnell, Liverpool University 

All told 1900 was quite a year, as wars and industrial strikes broke out across the globe, something else was beginning to stir, the emergence of football’s royalty. As winter tightened its grip on the population of Munich, eighteen young men in a restaurant in the city district of Schwabing were plotting and forming a club, one which would become a giant; a social institution, FC Bayern Munich. From those early days in Bavaria, Bayern has witnessed an unprecedented change in the history of Europe and its Football. Germany’s most successful club now find themselves in a global arms race competing across Europe with the very elite of the game, what’s at stake in this game is the most valuable scarce resource of them all, talent. In Bayern’s 119 year history the trading place for these resources has evolved into a global capitalist economic market model, one which regulation pays little attention too.

Perhaps our story here starts at the end of this club’s current historic path, one which documents and explores how the trading market has evolved and one which captures the constant capitalist need for growth. On 19 August 2019, Bayern made perhaps the biggest transfer of the European summer window, they signed Barcelona’s Brazilian midfield playmaker Philipe Coutinho. Yet such as the market has changed, this was not a straightforward trade between the two clubs involved, it was a strategic alliance and a commitment to loan the asset on a season-long loan, which will see Bayern pay Barcelona a loan-fee of €8.5 million plus Coutinho’s wages. How have we got to these market trading conditions and what does it mean for Bayern and all clubs operating within it? This is the focus of this article.

Philipe Coutinho Signs for Bayern

In a recent paper the Alex Bond, Paul Widdop and Dan Parnell, this loan market was explored and described, looking at its structure and trading flow. The results gave a fascinating insight into the market evolution of football and how resources flow in a market with a non-existent to limited regulation. We could say that Football is a window to a neo-classical economic view of a pure market. We have conceptualised what this market looks like, with clubs connected to others as they make loan signing alliances. In fact it looks like this.

The European Loan Market 2009-2017 

Using data on the top-5 European leagues in European football 8139 loan transactions between 31 December 2009 and 22 December 2017 were analysed using social network analysis. Clubs are sized by their aggregate degree (number of connections to other clubs) and colour coded using a modularity algorithm (those who are more connected to each other than others). The modularity shows the natural clusters or communities loan transactions create, with each colour generally representing the countries clubs loan/borrow players to/from: light green (Premier League); pink (Serie A); orange (Bundesliga); blue (La Liga) and dark green (Ligue 1).

As illustrated, the loan system is now integral to football operations globally yet it is under-researched, which is ironic given the economic value of these trading flows. But what does all this mean. Firstly, we can conceptualise the loan system as a cross-subsidisation mechanism which distributes playing resource (assets) from one club to another. This is often advantageous to both; resource improvement/development for the giving club; better-playing resource for the receiving. Using these temporal transactions we used social network analysis to analyse the economic relations created by the loan system illustrated above.

We find several stand out points. Firstly, the loan system across Europe is embedded within some countries more than most, namely Italy. Secondly, there are ‘value creators’ (whos who often reply on loans as a talent resource) and ‘value extractors’ (those clubs who send more players out on loan to other clubs) within the loan system. Third, clearly some clubs have strategised the loan system, namely the European elite, especially Juventus. Finally, some clubs are ‘dependent’ on giving and receiving players through the loan system, therefore any regulation needs to consider unintended consequences

The practical implications of this structural account of the loan market are twofold; 1) executive-level professionals in the football industry need to understand the structure of the market within they are operating, especially as this reduces the rationality of choice, and decisions need to be made in the context of strategy; and, 2) UEFA and FIFA need to full understand the structure of the market before considering regulating it, as there may be a number of unintended consequences, especially for those ‘value creators’ who rely on loans for talent.

But what was to become of FC Bayern Munich in this interconnected future. Given their elevated status in the game, they have a rather modest loan transaction model. According to our data, over the period studied they took 4 players on loan and loaned out 22. So they traditionally haven’t been aggressive in the loan market. This is especially modest compared with Bundesliga contemporaries Bayer Leverkusen (11 loans inward and 58 outward) and Hoffenheim (10 inward and 76 outward). FC Bayern Munich have not maximised their dominant market position.

Perhaps as the Riesling was flowing on that winters day in Munich 1900, those eighteen founding fathers talked of companionship, collective action, something for the people, a foci to share ideas, to share their love of football. Whether collective thoughts wondered off to the world of Brazilian loan signings is another matter, what is clear Bayern are very much part of this modern football trading market, and what is at stake is scarce resources, talent.

The journal article can be accessed here Topological network properties of the European football loan system – European Sport Management Quarterly

Paul Widdop :p.widdop@mmu.ac.uk

Alex Bond :a.bond@leedsbeckett.ac.uk

Dan Parnell: d.parnell@liverpool.ac.uk

Sail-training and intercultural learning: Voices from the sea

By Yujun Xu

University of Edinburgh 

• Research suggests that sail-training at sea provides an alternative space for intercultural learning and that the confinement of the ship provides for an opportunity for transformative cultural experiences- but is this the case ?

Enabling generation z to develop intercultural competences and become international citizens with obligations to others can take many forms. The relationship between sail-training, youth and intercultural learning remains an underexplored area both locally and internationally.

This evidenced research blog provides a qualitative insight into the potential of sail-training to be a transformative experience that provides for real educational outcomes in an informal educational setting.

Sail-training, liquid time and generation z

The tall ships are informal educational settings but does sail-training have a special role to play in youth development and intercultural learning? Is it time for a radical rethink about the definition of learning in outdoor spaces and the educative value of learning for youth development in a world that is tense, looking for answers and where better cultural relations between the different people of the world is needed?

Living in a liquid time when everything is on the move and potentially surrounded by diversity, the youth of today and in this case generation Z (born between the mid-1990s and early-2000s) have been significantly influenced by high technology and mobile device based social media in comparison to previous generations.

Tall ship sail-training spaces provide possibilities for experience and collective associations that can combat the often exclusionary effects of traditional educational spaces. The ship at sea can be viewed as a bounded socio-cultural space. The culture potential for inter-cultural learning allows individuals to experience differences in a constructive and empowering way.

Participants of sail-training have an opportunity to reach beyond the everyday social norms that have hitherto constructed and constrained their identities. Tall ship sail-training provides a reflective learning space that can contribute to effective intercultural learning, the breaking down of cultural barriers and the forging of better cultural relations – but are such relationships sustainable and transformative? Listen to some of these voices.

Voices from the sea

Such questions are at the heart of a much bigger study that traces sail-training participants experiences on board and afterwards in order to test what has actually been learned. The four voices presented here are but glimpses of a broader group of sail-training vignettes. Listen to the voices from the sea on certain themes:

• Talking about the natural environment: ‘We have experienced very rough weather, which is always helpful for bringing a group together, having really bad weather, having tough times together in the ocean also makes a difference from other sports’. (Crewmember, I)
• Talking about confined space and limited privacy: ‘We are more isolated than other sports. Here on a ship, you wake up each other using a personal wakey up you hold someone’s bucket. Then you are really close.’ (Crewmember, S)
• Talking about freedom from social media: ‘The social media detox definitely forced people to talk more. A lot of time in social settings, people seek refuge on their phones if they feel uncomfortable. They go to their phones and just look down. I feel that not having access to the internet made it a lot easier for people to avoid doing that. I think it brought up my focus a lot more.’ [Sail trainee, D]
• Talking about teamwork and collaborative experience:. ‘I think to experience the power of the group. Being a part of a group is a very good experience to see how the group can work together, how one plus one can be three, and I don’t think that everyone has experienced that. And sailing is a perfect way to experience that.’ [Crewmember, J]

How can we make sense of the voices from the sea: What are they really saying?
From the trainees’ and crewmembers’ points of view, sail-training is different from other sports or educational fields because of the environmental isolation. The isolation led to unique challenges and toughness that brought together the group and drove the group members to help each other and become relatively dependent on one another. This facilitated the trainees’ intercultural learning, understanding and flexibility. To some degree, the 24/7 intensity stimulated the participants’ critical thinking about their intercultural experiences.

Sail-training serves as an alternative education space and for Generation Z to temporarily escape the fluid time of the modern society and create opportunities for them to develop their intercultural understanding, and encourage their experiential engagement and creativity.

Tall ships, internationality and the search for common purpose

The United Nations, especially UNESCO, has been actively supporting and promoting learning and conversations between and within intercultural groups and communities. Regional unions such as the European Union (EU) are also reacting to the contemporary situation and endeavouring to commit to EU exchanges more often for more people. Such a goal if facilitated by Erasmus funding (+) to encourage youth to participate in a wide variety of programmes and activities to reinforce their European identity, as well as facilitate their understandings towards the self and the other.

As yet few initiatives and sources of funding are available to promote experiential exchange and interaction amongst Asian countries and other regions or parts of the world. 2018 saw the Tall Ships fleet sailing to the Pacific Rim for a truly unique race. This regatta marked the first race between the southern Korean Peninsula and the eastern coast of Russia and the fleet was joined by a flotilla of yachts from Chinese Qingdao International Yacht Club. It is suggested Asian countries could use youth development through sports and outdoor activities, including tall ship sailing, as a common purpose to develop more peace-oriented intercultural or exchange projects if not a more peaceful orientated world.

Concluding remark

Sail-training is a unique space in which inter-cultural learning between people and nations can be forged. In a tense and changing world why should this and other opportunities not be grasped in order to facilitate better cultural relations, diplomacy and international understanding?

The evidence presented here supports the idea that sail-training at sea provides an alternative space for intercultural learning and that the confinement of the ship provides for an opportunity for transformative cultural experiences.

Mo Salah changing social and political attitudes: Some Liverpool Voices

By Salma Abdalla and Grant Jarvie

Introduction
Few Muslims in British public life and British sporting life have been as open about their Muslim identity. This short evidenced research blog presents a series of voices around a set of themes, primarily Liverpool voices. They are a reflection on the impact of one footballer credited with changing social attitudes to perceptions about Islam in Britain since arriving at Liverpool Football Club in 2017. They resulted from a six-month period of fieldwork during 2017-18.

Athletes as social and political game changers
Mo Salah is part of a significant history of talented sports people who have used the highly visible public platform provided by sport to shed light on a number of social and political causes. A number of athletes have fought and aligned themselves to different social and political causes.

Ten Key Facts:
• Born in Nagrig, in the Gharbia district of Egypt (10% of people live in poverty).
• Salah’s football journey has included El Mokawloon Basle, Chelsea, Fiorentina and Roma.
• 2017 joins Liverpool Football Club for £36.9 million.
• In October 2017, Salah scored the penalty that sent Egypt to their first World Cup finals in 28 years.
• Stanford Study reports a reduction in hate crime in Liverpool, dropping by 18.8%. since Salah the club.
• Scored the opening goal in the Champions League Final
• The Salah effect linked to changing attitudes towards Muslims on Merseyside.
• Has supported struggles for women in Egypt stating that We need to change the way we treat women in our culture”.
• 2019 Times 100 list of influential people.
• Salah has maintained a close relationship with his family, neighbours and friends in Nagrig. He nurtures this relationship by supporting various development projects in village, ranging from youth centres to schools and hospitals.

Effect on Muslims as a source of pride and belonging:
“I think he has made the Muslim community in Liverpool and across the globe very proud. He has been a torchbearer of our faith in difficult times. He has broken many different barriers related to Islamophobia” (Male Muslim Liverpool Fan 1).

“My obsession or pride towards him isn’t because he is Mo Salah, my pride is because he is a Muslim doing amazing in the game and I love the fact that the second he does something wrong white people will jump to protect him” (Male Muslim Liverpool Fan 2).

“I am not a football fan but now Salah makes us talk about football. We feel proud and we show our support for him (Non-Football Muslim 1).

“Salah is showing that there’s avenue within sport and that you can do that as a Muslim and as an Arab, which is changing perceptions of local communities (Female Muslim football Fan 1).

Changing perceptions:
“He has changed the many different negative perceptions that people hold about the Muslim community and Muslim players (Male Muslim Liverpool Fan 1).

“I don’t know if he has made convers to Islam but he has opened people up to thinking about Islam in a different way…” (Non-Football Muslim 2).

“I think Salah challenges perceptions of what a Muslim is in Britain at this point in time” (Female Football Fan 2).

Wide acceptance and personality:
“Perhaps it comes down to success and I think regardless of a player’s background, religion, ethnicity, if you’re bringing your club success then fans are going to get behind you… (Female Football Fan 2).

“They footballers make millions and while Salah never speaks about it – he wants to do charity, he wants to do things for the community and he acts as a normal human being – he can make an impact because he is all about family, love of community and people in Liverpool relate to him” (Male Football Fan 4).

“He is experienced at being a Muslim or Islamic …. People are aware of the way it is talked about but he manages to do it in a way that is completely non-threatening” (Male Football Fan 5)

Celebrating faith:
“He is unapologetically Muslim, the beard, the prostration, the hand in the air and his name is Mohammed.. it is all of these things and on top of that he is a brilliant footballer” (Male Football Fan 2).

Context:
Most respondents agreed that the context, the place and the rise of Salah in Liverpool cannot be ignored.

“Liverpool is quite inclusive in that aspect and they seem to tie together as a family because of historical things that they kind of experienced together , their anthem you’ll never walk alone has a kind of encompassing feeling” (Female Football Fan 2).

Jurgen Klopp:
“It’s fantastic it is exactly what we need in these times .. To see this wonderful young man, full of joy, full of love, full of friendship, full of everything in a world where we struggle to understand all the things happening on the planet”

“Mo is a very smart person and his role is very influential. In the world at the moment, it is very important that you have people like Mo”

Conclusion.
The qualitative voices presented here add to some of the quantitative empirical work around what many are calling the off-field Salah effect. The voices talk to the impact of the player in Liverpool but equally a number of commentators have also reflected upon the impact of the footballer upon an Egyptian youth looking for role models.

Cothroman, ceistean is cunnartan do chamanachd nam ban.

The Camanachd Cup, pictured on the centre spot at Mossfield Park, Oban.

By 

Ùisdean Macillinnein

Le Cupa Ball-coise na Cruinne do bhoireannaich air soirbheachadh cho math san Fhraing an 2019, tha aire an t-saoghail air gluasad gu spòrs bhan ann an dòigh nach robh duine air sùileachadh, fiùs bliadhna air ais. Agus le buidhnean leithid FIFA agus buidhnean nàiseanta a-nis mothachail gur e slighe malairteach a tha ron earrann sin dhen ghèam as motha air feadh an t-saoghail, chan eil teagamh nach tig leudachadh agus leasachadh gu math nas sgiobalta air a h-uile taobh dhen ghèam do na boireannaich.

Chan eil an raon romhpa uile gu lèir cho rèidh sin ged-tha, ged a tha an saoghal do bhall-coise nam ban gu math nas gleansach agus nas tarraingiche an-diugh na bha e mus do thòisich Farpais na Cruinne. Leanaidh an geam an t-airgid, chionn tha FIFA agus buidhnean nàiseanta mothachail a-nis gur fhaodadh gum bi sruth airgid ann dhaibh fhèin an-lùib an leasachaidh, agus bidh na cluicheadairean iad fhèin, mar a dhearbh boireannaich an USA, gu math mothachail air an luach fhèin anns an t-sroillich feuch cò as motha a gheibh an cothrom air an sporran.

Tha sin ceart gu leòr do bhoireannaich a tha ri ball-coise ged a tha ceistean gu leòr ann fhathast mu chiamar a dhèiligeas na dùthachan beaga (a thaobh àireamhan chluicheadairean) leithid Alba ri cùisean. Ach a bheil, gu fìrinneach, an dealbh cho buileach gleansach agus gealltainneach do spòrs nam ban? Agus gu sònraichte `s dòcha do mhean-spòrs leithid camanachd far a bheil na h-àireamhn buileach nas lugha?

Mus coimhead sinn air an t-suidheachadh a’ dol air adhart, tha e feumail coimhead air càite an robh camanachd nam ban anns na bliadhnaichean a chaidh, can fiùs 10, 20 gun tighinn air 50 bliadhna air ais.

Nam biodh duine air a ràdh rium fhèin anns na seachdan anns an Oilthigh an Glaschu, far nach boireannach faisg air na geamaichean againn mur robh iad ri suirighe, gum biodh camanachd nam ban far a bheil e an-diugh, cha robh mi air facal a chreidsinn.  Geamaichean beò air an telebhisein (air seirbheis Ghàidhlig cuideachd) le structuran nàiseanta, fiùs aon bhoireannach na rèitire air geamaichen nam fear, agus cloinn-nighinn gu math tric a’ nochdadh an co-ionnannachd ri gillean agus fireannaich ann an geamaichean àbhaisteach.

Ri mo latha sa, a’ dol air ais gu m’fhìor òige, cha robh boireannaich nam pàirt de chamanachd ann an dòigh sam bith ach ris an iomall, a’ dèanamh an tì ma bha iad idir ann, agus a’ frithealadh leithid thiocaidean, raffles is eile.  Beag air bheag ged tha, fiùs anns na 70-an, agus an saoghal mòr ag atharrachadh, thòisich an crathadh, ged nach tàinig a’ chrith-thalmhainn a bha cuid a’ muigheadh, fiùs le fealla-dha.

Ma `s math mo chuimhne bha Liz NicAonghais (à Steòrnabhagh bho thùs, gu h-inntinneach) am measg a’ chiad bhoireannaich a nchd ann an saoghal follaiseach na camanachd, agus còmhla rithe thàinig leithid Donnella Crawford mu dheas. Ged nach robh iad a’ cluich, agus chan aithne dhomh cho fada air ais ri sin gu robh cluich sam bith a’ dol ach corra gheam spòrsail agus fealla-dha, `s ann ann an rianachd a’ ghèaim a rinn na boireannaich sin an slighe air adhart. Bha iad an sàs ann an comataidhean nàiseanta, agus le Donna gu sònraichte ann an saoghal nan sgoiltean far an robh grunn luchd-teagasg bho àm gu àm a’ cuideachadh ann an sgoiltean. Ach `s e saoghal nam fear a bha an saoghal na camanachd. Agus leis an eachdraidh a th’aig a’ ghèam agus an suidheachadh sòisealta a bha a’ riaghladh air feadh na Gàidhealtachd gu h-eachdraidheil, cha bu chòir sin a bhith na iongnadh.

Ged a bha stroillich gu leòr anns na 70-an am measg bhoireannaich nach robh iad a’ faighinn cothrom na fèinne ann an saoghal na camanachd – agus tha irisean Leabhair Bhliadhnail na Camanachd an “Shinty Yearbook” na dhearbhadh air sin, thug e còrr math is fichead bliadhna gus an do thòisich an siol a chaidh a chur sna 70-an a’ fas.

`S ann mu thionndadh na linne a thàinig cùisean gu ceann agus am follais le gèamaichean a’ tòiseachadh ann an grunn sgìrean – mun Òban , Gleann na Garadh is eile, agus sradag bheag a’ beòthachadh an sud san seo.  Bha na sgiobaidhean sin an ìre mhath uile an crochadh air aon neach no dha a bha gam putadh agus gam misneachadh agus mar a thòisich an gluasad `s ann a bu dhàine a thòisich na boireannaich a’ dol an sàs ann an cluich.

Ach bha gu leòr nan aghaidh – “Watch Out Boys, Revolution’s in the Air as Shinty Widows Stage a Takeover”,  sgrìobha Liz MacInnes, a bha aig an àm na Rùnaire air sgioba Inbhir Nis agus air comadaidhean eile.  “Many of the men treat us as a joke,” thuirt i, “and are loathe to listen to our opinions.”  Cha robh e fada agus an do thòisich a’ chuibhle a’ dol mun cuairt.

Bha aon shuidheachadh eile a chuidich leis a’ ghluasad seo agus am fàs, agus gu n-annasach `s e crìonadh a bh’air cùl chùisean.  Bha àireamhan sgoilearan ann am bun-sgoiltean air feadh na Gàidhealtachd, agus ann an sgìrean far am bu dual camanachd a’ crìonadh – ceangailte gu math tri cri cion-cosnaidh ann an sgìrean.   Leis sin, bha e a’ faireachdainn air cuid de sgoiltean sgiobaidhean a chur a-mach ann am farpaisean gus an do thuig iad gun gabhadh sgiobaidhean a thoirt còmhla nam biodh gillean agus clann-nighean gan cur còmhla.

Bha cuideachd gluasadan am measg oileanaich a bha a’ lorg rudan agus spòrs ùr mar phairt de dh’atharraichean sòisealta eile agus miann co-ionnannachd. Chan e mhàin gu do thòisich boireannaich (òga) a’ nochdadh, ach thachair seo aig àm far an robh an gèam a’ sgaoileadh gu sgìrean ùra leithid Dhun Phàrlain agus Fiobha, bha sgioba Mheadhan-Earra-Ghàidheil an Glaschu, le corra bhan-Eireannach nam measg, cuideachd gu math taiceil agus thug sgioba Dhunadd ann an Ceann LochGilp impidh do chùisean bho 1995, agus leis sin cuideachd thòisich cuid de na meadhanan a’ gabhail aire de na bha a’ tachairt. Aig àmanan bha sin ann an dòighean a bha car fanaideach ach rè ùine, mar a thòisich boireannaich a’ nochdadh ann an suidheachain spòrs eile, (agus mar a thòisich an lagh agus beachdan dhaoine ag atharrachadh, sdòcha), shiollaidh sin air falbh.

Tha cùisean gu math eadar-dhealaichte a-nis, ged nach eil a h-uile càil an òrdugh no mar bu mhiann le cuid. Tha astar an fhàs a’ sìor thogail agus chaidh an àireamh de bhoireannaich a tha a’ cluich aig ìre inbheach suas bho 224 ann an 2015 gu 423 an uiridh; am measg chloinn-nighean òga chaidh na h-àireamhan suas 122 gu 337 aig an aon àm.  Tha a-nis 20 buidheann bhan a’ cluich camanachd le glè fhaisg air 36 sgioba fa-leth a’ cluich aig diofar ìrean.  `S dòcha gur ann ans an Eilean Sgitheanach a bu luaithe a tha am fàs an deidh dhaibh sgioba a’ stèidheachadh ann an 2011.

San fhichead bliadhna a dh’fhalbh, tha camanachd nam ban air tighinn gu ìre far a bheil dithis bhoireannach air Bord-stiùiridh Chomann na Camanachd, tha na h-àimhrean cluiche a’ sìor dhol am meud, tha sgiobaidhean nam fear air gabhail ri na boireannaich mar phàirt chudromach dhan ghèam agus airidh air taic, ged nach do nochd fhathast ach aon bhoireannach na rèitire air geamaichean nam fear gu cunbhallach.

An uiridh an 2018, chaidh a’ chuairt dheireannach de Chupa Chamanachd nam Ban, Cupa Valerie Fhriseil, a chraoladh beò air BBC Alba le na ceudan an làthair an Ceann a’ Ghiùthsaich agus bana-rèitire a’ riaghladh. A’ cluich sa ghèam sin bha aon bhoireannach, Kirsty Deans, a bhoinneas do Cheann a’ Ghiùthsaich,  a nochd seachdain an deidh sin ann an geam beò eile air an TV agus i a’ cluich ball-coise.  Chaidh i air adhart bhon sin gu bhith air a h-ainmeachadh mar sgiobair air sgioba chamanachd Alba a’ cluich an Eireann agus chaidh a h-ainmeachadh mar neach spòrs na bliadhna air a’ Ghàidhealtachd le pàipear naidheachd na sgìre, am Press & Journal.

Agus thas Kirsty chòir na sàmhla air a’ ghèam san fharsaingeachd, na cothroman, na ceistean na cunnartan. Mar neach teagaisg PE tha i eòlach gu leòr air spòrs agus air a tarraing eadar diofar spòrs. Agus sin a’ cheist mhòr a- nis. Le leithid rugbaidh nam ban agus ball-coise nam ban a’ sìor leudachadh agus a’ fàs nas proifeiseanta, a bheil camanachd gu bhith ann an suidheachadh na boireannaich a chumail aca fhèin, neo an tòisich iad a’ sruthadh air falbh gu spòrs eile.

Tha a h-uile coltas ann an dràsta gu bheil impidh an casan na camanachd agus ma thèid aig Comann na Camanachd fhèin air suidheachadh nam ban a dhaingneachadh ann an riaghladh agus ro-innleachd a’ ghèaim, sdòcha, dìreach sdòcha, gu bheil saoghal ùr romhainn.  Tha sinn pìos math air chùlaibh gèam na h-Éireann ach tha gu leòr an sin as urrainn dhuinn ionnsachadh.  Ach tha aon rud cinnteach, mura freagair sinn na ceistean agus mura gabh sinn na cothroman, leanaidh na cunnartan.

Ùisdean Macillinnein

Fresh winds for equity in the beautiful game but challenges remain

By Grant Jarvie – University of Edinburgh 

Almost four years ago the Academy of Sport was invited to contribute to the then calls for reform in world soccer and support for women’s soccer. A summary of the contribution can be found here. The case for support focused upon two key themes. Firstly, that women were under-represented in decision making in world soccer and secondly that women’s football was under-resourced.

At the start of the 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup held France a panel of experts on the women’s game both domestically and internationally gathered at the University of Edinburgh’s Academy of Sport to both celebrate women’s soccer and reflect upon lessons and observations on the beautiful game.

Ebru Koksal one of only two women to have been the CEO of a Champions League Football Club and current chair of women in football championed the case for being bold for change.

2019 World Cup finance and equal pay
The 2019 World Cup is the first where the clubs will be compensated for releasing their players. Another gap closed in principle. The total FIFA input of £39 million is more than three times the amount made available for Canada in 2015. The total prize fund at the 2018 World Cup in Russia was more than £300 million. Lessons need to be learned in relation to how the Women’s World Cup rights are commercialised.

England’s Toni Duggan believes that the players should be paid more but not the same as men. Most of the professional women players with the big clubs in England will be on six-figure salaries. This is more than many SPFL men players and yet equality for Duggan is as much about pitches, facilities and parity of esteem. In Europe fans are much more open to supporting the club rather than the fact that it is the men or women’s team playing. In 2019 Duggan finished her second season with Barcelona and played in front of the then league record crowd of 60,739.

The five majors
The CIES 2019 demographic analysis of five major women’s football leagues (England, Germany, Sweden, France and the USA all of whom reached the quarter finals in France) can be found here. It concluded that the economic development occurring at the top of the pyramid of women’s professional football indicates that the age of players tends to increase as international mobility grows and that the concentration of the best footballers within a limited number of clubs in the best leagues remains concentrated in these five countries.

From the players playing in France 2019 Canada is the country with the biggest contingent of expatriate players in the championship with a total of 28. Canadians are particularly numerous in the United States with the National Women’s Soccer League, the majority of Scottish women head for England while half of the expatriate American’s play in Sweden.

Challenges and opportunities
Whether it be the domestic of international front fresh winds for more equity in the beautiful game are being called for. Along with challenges come opportunities argued Ebru Koksal. The UEFA women’s football strategy talks of : Doubling the number of women and girls playing football in UEFA’s member associations to 2.5 million; Changing the perceptions of women’s football across Europe; Doubling the reach and value of the UEFA Women’s EURO and the UEFA Women’s Champions League; Improving player standards by reaching standard agreements for national team players and putting safeguarding policies in place in all 55 member associations and doubling female representation on all UEFA bodies.

Progress but challenges remain.
At the first World Cup in 1991 the gender split of the coaches was 11 (men) and 1 (woman) while in France men continued to dominate 16 to 8.

The USA ranked number one in the world going into the tournament sees US soccer involved in a lawsuit accused of gender discrimination. 28 members of the USA World Cup Soccer squad filed the lawsuit on 8 March 2019 alleging institutionalised gender discrimination that included inequitable compensation when compared to their male counterparts in the USA.

Norway entered the tournament without Ada Hegerberg , the first female Ballon d’Or winner, who stepped away from the National team in 2017 because of the perceived or otherwise lack of disregard for women’s football in Norway.

Domestic insights
Domestically it was the first World Cup that Scotland had qualified for since 1998. The country has arguably witnessed a culture shift with taxi drivers talking excitedly about the game in a country that has no full-time professional league that women can play in.

Between 2015 and 2019 the number of registered female players in Scotland has risen to about 14,000. 6.1 million viewers watched Scotland v England. 18,555 attended the Scotland v Jamaica build up game at Hampden Park just prior to the World Cup – a record crowd for a women’s game at Hampden. The average attendance at women’s football matches in Scotland is about 1500.

Commentators on the women’s game regularly point to the fact that it is a cleaner and easier product to sell – no gambling, no alcohol sponsorship and not troubled by sectarianism.

Laura Montgomery, co-founder of Glasgow City, the most successful women’s team to date in Scotland and who according to Rachel Corsie – Scotland’s Captain has done more than anyone to advance the game for women and girls in Scotland also joined the University of Edinburgh discussion and provided a real insight into the challenge to grow and sustain the women’s game in Scotland while not compromising on the quality of input.

Significantly she asked where would the women’s game in Scotland be now if it had not been banned?

Leeann Dempster CEO of Hibernian Football Club talking about the state of the women’s game in Scotland sees it as getting stronger but that does not mean that it is strong as it should be. For the CEO key questions remain:

• How do we fund the growth of the women’s game in Scotland?
• How do we bring in the commercial rewards it deserves?
• Who takes responsibility for the women’s game in Scotland? Where does it sit? Who takes the lead?

Concluding comment
Football, soccer remains one of the most visible areas of public life in many countries. The 50 page review of women’s football published just prior to the 2019 World Cup suggested that fresh winds of equity were blowing but that significant challenges remain- see here. Such a visible are of public life brings with it responsibilities for forging and enjoying the benefits that gender equality and diversity brings with and through soccer.

Who is on board in Scottish sport?

By Isabelle Boulert, Josh Emerson and Grant Jarvie
University of Edinburgh

Scotland could do more to end all white boards in sport.

Key Facts:

• An audit of Scottish sports boards (N=82) carried out between 2017-2018
• Composition of Scottish sports boards 99.5% white and 0.5% people of colour
• Availability of Board data – 10% no data.
• Chairs of Scottish Sports Boards 100% white and 0% people of colour
• 3 people of colour as board members out of 558 board members

The research findings presented acknowledges that the use of all encompassing terms to explain diversity in Scotland hides the richness of diversity in Scotland today.

That being said the findings from the review of Scottish sports boards evidences for the first time the fact that people of colour are under-represented in the decision making roles in sport in Scotland.

There is not just a social and political imperative for Scottish sports boards to be more representative of Scottish communities but a substantial body of evidence demonstrates that having diverse boards boosts recruitment, retention and productivity while reducing risk.

Nor is the lack of diversity on Scottish sports boards an issue that is unique to Scotland or sport. The 2017 Parker Review of Ethnicity and Diversity on UK Boards reported that only 2 per cent of all FTSE 100 board directors are UK citizens of colour, while the non-white population was 14 per cent and set to rise 20 per cent by 2030.

Only six people of colour held the position of Chair or Chief Executive while 51 of the FTSE 100 companies did not have any non-white people on Board.

Increasing participation and representation from under-represented groups in sport remains an urgent and complex issue that permeates the sports system. While there are many examples of remarkable initiatives enabling equality and diversity in and through sport there remains many areas where progress has to be made and where a co-ordinated and collaborative approach could lead to significant improvements.

Scotland’s diverse and ageing population has much to offer sport. From volunteers and coaches to being Board members, there are people with a wealth of knowledge and experience to be passed on to the next generation and the notion of their not be enough capable and qualified non-white applicants needs to be rejected.

Leadership in Scottish Sport needs to be much more innovative and pro-active to ensure it is representative and reflective of Scottish people and communities.

Leadership positions and boards in Scottish Sport are almost entirely white. The cost of accessing sport and facilities remains a significant barrier with sport being available to those from wealthier backgrounds. Many sports still have a gender imbalance while recognising that much progress has been made. The disability sports voice needs to be represented more.

Successful societies are inclusive societies and sport can act as a way to help bring communities together, if it becomes more inclusive at all levels.

The evidence does not discount the steps that have been accomplished to advance equality and reduce inequality gaps in Scottish sport but it does suggest that when Scottish sport boards tend to recruit to leadership positions this tends to result in, primarily if not exclusively in many cases, all white Scottish sports boards.

The Hampden Case

By

Grant Jarvie
University of Edinburgh

The Scottish Football Association decided to stay at Hampden and in this short review we consider some of the evidence, arguments and background to the decision.

While the costs of the Hampden v Murrayfield cases were different the final judgement may not have been just about economic costs but social, cultural, community and financial assets and voices that all needed to be listened too.

Prior to the decision The Scottish Football Association (SFA) rented the 115-year old ground from its Queen’s Park owners under the terms of a lease which expires in 2020.

In June 2017 the SFA reiterated that the preferred option was for Hampden Park to remain the home of the national game and that a decision would be made within 12-18 months.

14 months later and within the time scale set by the SFA the decision was made.

The historic case is no small thing. This is not just about the fact that: the origins of the relationship between football and Hampden go back to at least 1873; the oldest football international in the world is associated with Hampden; or that Hampden is part of the story of Glasgow at play that cannot be simply be relocated.

Scotland has given a lot to the world of sport and the relationship between football and Hampden is an important part of that success story. Glasgow has established itself as an emerging international sporting city and Hampden is part of that success story. It is the only Scottish city and one of only two UK cities in the top 20 sportcal index of international sporting cities. Hampden helps to connect Scotland and Glasgow with other parts of the world.

While Italy does not have a national football stadium a survey of FIFA members showed that 65% of UEFA members (Europe) 83% of CONCACAF (North, Central America’s and the Caribbean); 81% OF CAF(Asia); 80% of CONMEBOL (South America) and 41% of AFC (Africa) members all have national football stadiums.

The attempt by the Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) to shift the football powers from Glasgow to Edinburgh was ambitious and the decision to bid may still have spin offs for the SRU. The competitive advantages of ground ownership, greater stadium capacity allowed the SRU to offer the SFA financial inducements of up to £2 million per annum.

The SRU recognise the pull of football. Global impact studies will show that one in five people around the world connect with football is someway or another. It has a pull and attraction that is unparalleled and Scotland has an internationally recognised foothold in this world that many sports would like to tap into.

The fact that football playing members of football governing bodies are more than double that of rugby would not have gone unnoticed. The gradual increase in playing members sees football growing from 120,000 playing members in 2014 to 137,134 by 2017 compared to rugby’s modest growth from 47,598 in 2014 to 48,654 in 2017. In terms of adult men and women and junior boys and girls football numbers are far higher than rugby.

This is not the golden age for opinion pols. A 2017 survey of Scottish football fans showed that: 15% of the 2,923 involved wanted Hampden Park to continue as the national stadium; 34% of fans favoured a move to Murrayfield; playing at grounds across Scotland was the preference of 25%; 24% wanted a “new Hampden” built while 97% believed fans should have input to the decision. But what were the views of the 67,887 Scottish Football Supporters Association members who didn’t take part in the survey? Were the views represented mainly those of the bigger clubs who would financially benefit from the demise the National Football Stadium?

The prospect of regular Old Firm football matches being played at Murrayfield prompted the Scottish Police Federation (SPF) to put a marker down about the additional human and financial costs associated with policing the M8 corridor should the move to Murrafield have been sanction by the SFA Board. It is one thing for an Edinburgh Tory councillor to suggest that this is just a matter of resources but it is another thing entirely to find such resources on a regular basis.

The SFA would certainly have had to contribute to the cost of Murrayfield policing. It is a matter of judgement as to whether scarce SFA resources should be spent on policing or grassroots community developments given the proven benefits of football in relation to social cohesion and crime reduction.

In a nation that believes that devolved power and voice should be listened to the Mount Florida Community Council made their views known. The third Hampden Park, located on Mount Florida some 500 yds south of it’s predecessor opened in 1903. In a letter to Hampden Park Limited the Mount Florida Community Council put forward the case for remain on the grounds of the cost to local heritage, the local economy and local identity.

Glasgow City Council leader Susan Aitken warned of a historic stain that would be impossible to erase should Hampden, Queens Park, King’s Park and Mount Florida be abandoned. The promise of increased capacities through the introduction of safe standing, improved transport links and a user friendly council to assist the SFA with any stadium alterations were all forthcoming. Glasgow City Council need to stand by promises made.

In someway Hampden suffered, as does Scottish sport, from not having a unified voice fighting and advocating for Hampden. The danger would be that Hampden and Scottish Football did not fully realise what it had until it was too late.

The reason why Hampden had to remain the national home of Scottish Football is that Hampden is the national and international recognised home of Scottish Football. Most FIFA member countries have national football stadiums. Hampden can and should be improved but it would have been be cultural theft and vandalism to move it out of it’s current location. Celtic, Rangers, Hibs, Hearts, Aberdeen and the SRU may have gained financially in some small way if football moved away from Hampden but Scotland as a whole would lose nationally and internationally.

Scotland has a recognised base, role and reputation through football and therefore why would and should it have moved to a base where in the words of the SRU’s chief operating officer ‘Rugby has to take priority’. This is not mutuality, this is not equality, and it would not have been good for Scotland or Scottish football.

Scotland’s future with football looks bright and the most recent Social Return on Investment Report highlighted the fact that football was worth £1.25 billion to Scottish Society. At least four things are worth highlighting:

GIRLS’ AND WOMEN’S FOOTBALL
Continues to grow and develop, inspired by the Scottish Women’s
National Team qualification for the FIFA Women’s World Cup in 2019.
The Scottish FA have some ambitious targets to develop the game on and off the pitch. We have some of the best players in the world who act as role models for players and young people across Scotland.

HAMPDEN AS HOME
Ownership of Hampden Park will enable the Scottish FA to control the future of the stadium. It will open up opportunities to continue to develop the infrastructure and create a national stadium that could engage the next generation of football fans.

FOOTBALL FOR ALL
The Scottish FA are committed to working with clubs and partners to make football accessible for all. It aims to make our game as diverse as possible to represent our communities.

COMMUNITY CLUBS
Scotland has some of the finest examples of community clubs in Europe. As clubs continue to grow and develop football has been working hard with the football family to
offer advice and guidance, both on and off the pitch, to allow clubs, no matter their place in the pathway to fulfil their ambitions.

FOOTBALL SRI FACTS
£200m to the economy
£300m worth of social benefits, including crime reduction
£700m worth of health benefits

Professor Grant Jarvie
University of Edinburgh

The use of Sport initiatives to promote Human Rights in Palestine

By Asil Said 

 

Introduction

Books and Boxers and the Right to Movement are but two interventions aiming to make a difference to the lives of youth in Palestine. This Academy of Sport- Sport Matters blog provides an evidenced insight into the struggle for sport as a human right within Palestine. 

Sport, Palestine and the International Community

Sport and physical activity has international recognition as a simple, low cost and effective tool for development, and a means of achieving national and international development goals. The United Nations Agenda 2030 has provided sport with a mandate to contribute to social change.

In Palestine, due in part to the charged political situation and unrest in the region, sport has a significant opportunity and potential to be used as a tool for social change, promoting values such as gender equality, racial equality, health promotion, education, human rights awareness and social cohesion.

Sport has not claimed a position of priority within Palestinian policy agendas and it remains one of the least funded, supported and regulated sectors of development.

This is perhaps surprising given that youth (ages 15-29) comprise 30% of the total Palestinian population. All children and youth under the age of 29 comprise over 50% of the population.

The lack of sport activities and initiatives has contributed to an unhealthy environment that has led to participation in conflict and/or criminal activity.

Sport and Human Rights:

Participation in sport and physical activity is a recognised right to which people are entitled:

  • Article 1 of the Revised International Charter of Physical Education, Physical Activity an Sport adopted by UNESCO’s General Assembly (2015) states that:

“The practice of physical education, physical activity and sport is a fundamental right for all”.

  • Article 30 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities affirms the right of persons with disabilities to: “Participation in cultural life, recreation, leisure and sport”.
  • Article 31 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child states that: “Children have the right to relax and , and to join in a wide range of cultural, artistic and other recreational activities”.
  • Article 10 of the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) states men and women should have “the same Opportunities to participate actively in sports and physical education”; and Article 13 states that: women have the “right to participate in recreational activities, sports and all aspects of cultural life”.
  • Sports has more recently been recognized by the United Nations and the International Olympic Committee for its active role in contributing to Agenda 2030 and  the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Sport and physical activity is also an important facilitator of a number of other internationally recognized human rights, including:

  • The right to participate in cultural life, enshrined in Article 27 of the UDHR and Article 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).
  • The right to health, enshrined in Article 25 of the UDHR, Article 12 of the ICESCR, Article 5 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and Article 11 and 12 of CEDAW.
  • The right to rest and leisure, included in Article 24 of the UDHR and Article 7 of the ICESCR.

With the goal of increasing the participation of young people in sport as a human right and using it to assist in the achievement of human rights for youth in Palestine, many private initiatives, (led mainly by NGOs, local community organizations and individual athletes) have advanced successful interventions linking human rights to sports and youth in Palestine.

Books and Boxers: 

ElBarrio Gym is a for-profit business established in 2016 aiming to enable and assist sport in Palestine. The initiative “Books and Boxers” focuses on male adolescents in Ramallah’s poorest public schools (ages 13-16). It teaches boxing through a programme implemented with the help of the Palestinian Ministry of Education.

The programme is implemented with the aim of lowering high school dropout rates in the city of Ramallah, which is 15% higher than the reported 2.4% dropout rate for males enrolled in secondary education institutions in Palestine. With a violent culture surrounding such areas and public schools, ElBarrio wanted to use sport as a means to an end and  to create a shift in the way boys felt about education.

In addition to boxing training, ElBarrio Gym looked to provide psychological support for the participants, giving them the privacy and space to share their feelings and thoughts, as well  providing academic and educational support to sustain enrolment in school.

The programme hopes to reiterate the success with boys by targeting female students of public schools not only working towards lowering dropout rates but also shifting socially constructed barriers and perceptions related to female participation in martial arts and violent sports.

Nader Jayousi, the boxing coach responsible of the programme stated in an interview:

“The programme aims to create a safe space for the kids to practice sport, release their anger and learn that being active can support them and offer them an alternative future from the one they think they will have”.

A picture taken from the after school program “Books and Boxers” implemented by ElBarrio Gym in Ramallah, aiming to lower the dropout level of secndary school boys using the sport of Boxing. Source: elbarrio.ps

Right to Movement: Running to tell a different story: 

 The Right to Movement Palestine (RTM) is an entrepreneurial, non-profit, social start-up, that is part of a global running community aiming to run for the basic human right to freedom of movement. The initiative was named after article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights stating: “Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State and everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country”.

In Palestine, RTM laid the foundation for what is now the annual Palestinian Marathon in the city of Bethlehem. The location highlights movement restriction imposed by Israeli occupation and the fact that West Bank Palestinians are unable to find an unbroken distance of 42.1km in any of their major cities.

The marathon runners must turn around after arriving at a checkpoint to complete the official distance.

In addition to their daily running tours in different parts of the Occupied Palestinian Territories, RTM aspire to establish a running culture in the Palestinian community through empowering young people to practice sports, supporting women’s access to sport and reinforcing the right to physical activity.

Diala Said, one of the organisers of the group in the city of Ramallah said in an interview

“Around the world, you can just put on your shoes and go running, this inspired me to claim not only my own right to move, but the right of my fellow Palestinians to exercise and move freely”.

A picture taken from the 2016 Palestinian Marathon organized by RTM, showing Palestinian athletes running alongside the Israeli “Separation Wall” in the city of Bethlehem, to highlight the lack of right to movement in the occupied Palestinian territories.

Source; Right to Movement Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/righttomovement.org/

What next?

To fully utilise sport as a tool for human rights, a change in national and international policies is fundamental. This change starts with increasing the involvement, investment and communication between sporting and human rights organizations, which will in turn support the sustainability of sports initiatives while emphasising a range of individual and collective benefits associated with participation in sport as a human right.

In addition,  advancing widening access to sport programmes and initiatives (current ones and ones to be developed) to financial, institutional and development support as well as effectively activating government resources needs to be fought for.

A recognition of the role that sport can play in advancing  human rights within the Palestinian community needs to take place alongside more deliberate and direct strategies and policies working towards the mainstreaming” of sport.

 

United States Sport Diplomacy under 3 Presidents

By Joe Marro

For decades, the U.S. has aimed to use sport as an effective aspect of diplomacy and cultural relations efforts with a view to establishing deep, meaningful relationships with local stakeholders.

America’s use of sports diplomacy involves the work of influential athletes, local programmes and partnerships around the globe.

Sport has played an important role in developing America’s international image. This was evident in the American boycotts of some Cold War era Olympic Games, the work of Muhammad Ali, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Billy Jean King, Arthur Ashe and NBA stars like Kobe Bryant and LeBron James in China.

The Sports Diplomacy Division

Shortly after the 9/11 attacks, President George W. Bush’s Administration created Sports United, now the Sports Diplomacy Division (SDD), to use sport as a way to conduct diplomatic outreach between the U.S. and countries in the Middle East.

These efforts included sending U.S. athletes and coaches overseas as well as the Sports Visitor Program, which brings non-elite athletes and coaches to the U.S. for a training and development programme.

SDD made significant strides during the Obama Administration, including the creation of two new programmes aimed at increasing access to sport participation for women and girls and developing female emerging leaders in sport.

In a 2013  study  conducted by Management Systems International and the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs Office of Policy and Evaluation, 92% of respondents said that their views of the American people had improved after participating in SDD programming.

The Sports Diplomacy Division consists of several programmes which aim to use sports as a platform for addressing foreign policy priorities across the globe.

SDD programmes have been growing and enhancing their impact. In the period from 2010 through 2013, the Sports Visitor, Sports Grants, and Sports Envoy programs all experienced significant growth.

  •  The Sports Visitor Program increased their impacted countries by 229% and experienced a 142% increase in the number of Sports Visitor participants.
  •  The Sports Grants program’s number of participants from 2010-2013 was 85% of their total participants in the eight years prior.
  •  The Sports Envoy Program had 179% more coaches and players in this four-year range than the previous eight years and reached 59% more countries than reached from 2005 to 2009.

Using sport to tackle global issues

Sports and Gender Equality

The work of the SDD is critical in improving opportunities for girls and women to participate in sport around the world.

In 2012, the State Department partnered with espnW to establish the Global Sports Mentoring Programme, which pairs emerging international women leaders with leading American female sports executives.

SDD’s Women and Girls Through Sports Initiative works to engage with underserved youth, particularly girls, in order to increase sport participation levels, raise levels of self-esteem, and increase focus on access to quality education.

This presents an opportunity for female leaders to participate in a five-week mentorship in the U.S. and allows them to bring lessons back into their communities with a view to promoting and fostering the growth of more female sport leaders.

Sport and Global Health

Physical activity has been shown to be an important part of preventative strategies to address global health. SDD works to increase physical activity through programmes like the International Sports Programming Initiative (ISPI), which awards grants to U.S. non-profits working in 10 countries. This programme benefits both its international participants and U.S. non-profits, with 57 grants implemented through 38 different NGOs in the period from 2002-2009.

Since the programme’s introduction in 2002, there have been 862 Americans engaged in sport for development programmes overseas, and 1,462 foreign participants who have travelled to the U.S. to gain knowledge of the sport for change infrastructure.

Sport for Community

Since 2012, alumni from SDD’s “Sport for Community” programme  have mobilised close to 5,000 volunteers and impacted nearly 100,000 people through sports workshops, clinics, and conferences at the local level.

The Sport for Community programme partners with the Center for Sport, Peace, and Society at the University of Tennessee (UTK) to deliver these services across the country.

These partnerships with Universities like UTK, as well as the University of Kentucky’s  Global Centre for Sport Diplomacy are a sound method for delivering critical sport for development and social change programmes around the country.

These partnerships work to address pressing challenges both within the U.S. and abroad, in addition to serving a crucial role in helping to develop future leaders in the field.

American Professional Sports and Diplomacy

The United States Sports Diplomacy and cultural relations efforts also include harnessing the worldwide popularity of American sports leagues and athletes. In the past, athletes have visited countries where engagement with populations through traditional methods of outreach has proved challenging.

In early 2016, the SDD brought stars like NBA Hall of Famer Shaquille O’Neal to Cuba to engage directly with Cuban youth and build upon the work of people-to-people exchanges. Sport is seen as a natural avenue for engaging Cuban youth and encouraging a closer relationship between the two nations in the decades to come.

These efforts can be replicated in countries where direct public engagement is needed to foster relationships.

Along these lines, the National Basketball Association has made significant progress in growing the game of basketball and the American basketball product globally, especially in Europe and Asia. In China, the NBA has worked with the Chinese Ministry of Education to administer a programme focused on basketball and physical fitness that it is anticipated to be taken up by some 2,000 schools across China.

The U.S. government has a unique opportunity to partner with U.S. based professional sport leagues like the NBA who have already made significant strides in growing their international influence. These types of partnerships help to advance U.S. cultural relations efforts abroad, deliver key services to countries in need, and, where appropriate, help in growing meaningful relationships with governments.

Where are we now?

Despite the many successes of the SDD and the proven track record of sport for development around the world, the current Administration has proposed wide-scale cuts to the State Department’s appropriations, the federal funding source for the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, of which SDD is a part.

Given the scope and impact of its programmes, the Sport Diplomacy Division boasts a significant return on investment, spending just .0001% of the State Department’s budget.

This month’s shakeup at the State Department, resulting in the ouster of Secretary Rex Tillerson and President Trump’s appointment of CIA Director Mike Pompeo as his replacement, raises several questions for America’s diplomatic strategy going forward.

Mr. Tillerson presided over and supported proposed deep cuts to the Department’s budget and diplomatic corps. The first fourteen months of the Trump Administration have demonstrated an expected move away from soft power, creating a cloud of doubt around the role of diplomacy, including sport diplomacy and it’s place in America’s foreign policy over the next three years.

Sport for Development, Football and Chile: Voices from The Fútbol Más Program

By
Constanza Campos Correa
University of Edinburgh

The biography of the Chilean soccer star Alexis Alejandro Sánchez is indicative of the social and economic advantages that success in professional sport may bring to individuals who grew up in challenging circumstances. Football continues to be a social mobility pathway for the few and not the many. While wealthy transfers tend to be headline news what is less well known is the way in which football works for other people in Chile.

United Nations
The United Nations has recently (2015) provided sport with an international mandate to contribute to the 2030 Sustainable development goals. Sport for development and peace (SDP) and sport for change (SC) programmes differ from sport development programmes because they intentionally plan to deliver other outcomes through sport. One of the issues with such programmes is the lack of evidence involving participants who can testify to the extent to which the sports interventions have been effective after a period of time.

The Fútbol Más Program
The Fútbol Más Program was created in 2009, the organisation works in eight different countries along three continents, with around 5.000 kids and in 70 neighbourhoods. Their background of being an organisation created in the Global South, expanded to the rest of the world more than 10 years ago, and their international reputation, provided the perfect scenario to explore the impact of an SDP programme in Chile.

The Study
This small study explored the way in which one football programme worked for a group of young Chilean kids who participated in the Fútbol Más Program. Very few SDP and SC programmes systematically track over a period of time the benefits, successes and challenges experienced by the participants several years after they have left the programme.

This study worked with a group of nine kids who had left the programme five years ago with a view to listening to their accounts of how the programme had impacted upon their lives. This research worked with a specific group of nine young adults who, in 2012, won the national league of the organisation. The participants were between 17 to 19 years old from a small neighbourhood in the north of Chile.

Two waves or phases of analysis were undertaken. The first wave of analysis listened to the participants during three different phases of their lives in relation to the Fútbol Más Programme, before, during and after. The responses covered five different areas, education, health, inclusion and community building, mass participation in physical activity and social behaviour.

The second wave of analysis listened to feedback to the programme organisers.

The five areas mentioned above are covered in turn:

Education
One of the most important aspects observed in education is that six of the nine participants explained that they had learned new social abilities such as sociability and self-confidence with the programme and that these were especially useful and observable within the school.

These new skills gave rise to important changes in the personality of the participants, affecting them in positive ways, such as how to be part of a group, how to create correct interaction with their peers and how to express more personality within the classroom.

They described these new skills as being very useful in their day-to-day lives.

“They taught us values, so that influenced me to change some aspects of my personality. For example, I used to be very shy and I could not talk in front of the class. When I started to participate in the programme, I felt like I had more personality”.

Health
Although more difficult to measure, two of the participants described positive changes in their physical health after participating in the programme, such as weight loss and support to come through the experience of having heart disease.

In addition to this there were recorded some important changes to participants in relation to happiness and positive feeling, and in the majority of cases, those feelings were maintained over time. Consequently, the programme achieved one of their main goals, which is to contribute to the happiness of children.

“The motivation was different. I woke up to go to the school with a more positive attitude, and I waited for the Fútbol Más classes with a lot of expectation”.

Inclusion and Community Building
Participants perceived a significant change in the community as a result of the presence of the programme in the local neighbourhood.

They described a high level of the respect and support from the community towards the programme. Because of this, it could be observed that the programme created an impact in the community, integrating them into the project and creating a positive development of social capital such as stronger networks, higher levels of trust and pride in being part of the community.

Additionally, the project affords the participants the opportunity to continue in the project as leaders and monitors, integrating and creating opportunities for the young people of the community as well.

“It is a big responsibility for me to still be involved with the community, because the parents want me to be the teacher of their kids, and they chose me as the best leader one year”.

Mass Participation in Physical Activity
It can be observed from the participants’ responses that currently eight out of nine young adults practiced the World Health Organisations (2017) recommended hours of PA in comparison with five out of nine participants that were practising the recommended hours of PA before Fútbol Más.

It might be perceived that Fútbol Más has the potential to make a good contribution in the area of Mass Participation in lower class income groups, which is the social group who participate less in PA in Chile.

Consequently, the programme could be creating or enabling sustained PA participation over a long term period (five years), and helping to achieve what sport policies in many countries fail achieve with lower class income groups.

This participation in PA is created at no monetary cost. This area is important to highlight, because football, especially in an unequal country such as Chile, is a good alternative as a social tool used to tackle poverty.

At the same time, this might give rise to illusions for young children and families to become famous football players, which just a small number of children manage to do. This illusion is not the sole problem, for this illusion might also be surrounded by business and the need to pay to play in football clubs.

That it is why Fútbol Más could contribute to create a participation in Physical Activity, with no cost to the government or families.

Social Behaviour
The main findings were associated with how the programme could be a means of prevention. Judging by the responses of the participants, all of them highlighted the main values of the programme (respect, responsibility, happiness, creativity and teamwork) as an important aspect of the programme that could influence their social behaviour in a positive way.

 

Also, most of the positive responses relating to the influence of those values in their actual lives were from participants who were no longer part of the organisation.

This could suggest that the main values taught to them by the organisation creates an impact on the participants across a long term period (five years), and could be discouraging them from participating in some forms of anti- social behaviour.

“I think Fútbol Más helped me to be a better person as a player. I learned how to be modest with my achievements in football, to be more generous with my teammates and respectful with the teachers. Also, they taught me to believe in me and to be sure of what I want to achieve in my life”.

Second phase analysis
This brief contribution will limit itself to making two further observations that can be drawn from the conversations with the programme participants.

Remarkable aspects
One of the most valuables characteristics of the programme described by the participants was the academic and human quality of the teachers. This aspect is very important for the purpose of the project, because it is this strong connection and impact (generated by the teacher towards the participants) that would contribute to making it possible to the long term impacts from the SDP programme for the participants.

Possible changes
The participants were also asked about their concerns about the programme, and one of the main topics discussed was related to the end of the project. This stage was for all of the participants, a hard one to accept, even when some of them continued in the programme and had a chance to develop within a new area in the organisation.

The main frustration from the participants originated from the impossibility to compete with the programme, and, at the same time, in this stage some of the participants felt frustrated about their dreams to become a professional football player. In this crucial stage for the participants, it would perhaps be beneficial to extend the categories so that the participants could continue until they were 18 years old and further sustain sustain the development of participants, and perhaps support the young adults in this complicated stage when they are dealing with important decisions about their futures.

“I really liked the competitive part of Fútbol Más, to have matches, to try to be the best and to play with other teams. I think this aspect motivates me the most to play football and to be part of a team”.

Concluding Comment
Very little has been written about sport for development in Latin America and this study makes a small contribution in trying to contribute to the gap in sport for development research in Latin America and in this case Chile.

Biography
The researcher herself is Chilean and the motivation behind the small study was to help to contribute to an area of knowledge about Chile and provide a further basis for dialogue about SDP in a larger Latin American set of contexts.

The researcher is grateful to the many people inside and outside of Chile who offered advice, support and knowledge. The researcher has worked both as a sports journalist in Chile and a research assistant with the University of Edinburgh.