I was working my way through another batch of appeals papers in the National Archives this week. It was slightly tedious work. The papers had a depressing similarity to ones I’d seen before. I wanted to stop and have another coffee. But that would involve packing up my things and going downstairs to the lovely coffee shop. Then I found cake in the archives. I was looking at an appeal case by a farmer in 1960. He had been claiming sickness benefit until a sick visitor came spying around his farm and caught him:
‘Feeding cake to the sheep’
I don’t suppose it was chocolate gateau but it made me smile and kept me from the cafe for a little longer. Quite apart from the cake, it turned out to be a most interesting case. The farmer’s benefit was stopped because he was thought to be ‘working’ while claiming and so the whole case concerned whether feeding his sheep and riding a tractor constituted ‘work’. The National Insurance Commissioners decided that it didn’t and so he was allowed to keep his benefit. But his case was typical of many cases around that time, concerning farmers and other self-employed people. The dilemma for the decision makers was how much ‘work’ a self-employed person was allowed to do while retaining their right to benefit. It wasn’t easy. Most self-employed people cannot let their small businesses run entirely without some supervision, even when they are ill, but does that constitute ‘work’? And the claimants all felt justified in their claims for benefit because, they argued, they were making considerably less money than usual, and were often losing money by paying supervisors or other assistants to do the work they normally did. These examples of self-employed people’s claims for benefit provide useful illustrations of how sickness benefit schemes are designed to suit the working lives of people in conventional employment and do not operate well for anyone who doesn’t fit that pattern.
and a dog
My second cake moment came when I was looking through the minutes of an ‘approved society’, responsible for paying sickness benefits between 1911 and 1948. The National Archives kept some quite detailed records of a couple of societies, for preservation, when the sickness benefit scheme transferred to the state National Insurance scheme in 1948. The minutes, from 1912-21, mainly contain tedious discussions about staff wages and office supplies, such as how much to spend on new typewriter ribbons, as well as more interesting statistics on the cost of administering the scheme and how to manage the work of the scheme during the First World War. This is all very useful information, if you are interested in how the approved societies managed their business but it wasn’t really what I was looking for. And then I found a dog in the archives. In the minutes from October 1918 was this statement:
‘Brother Aubin reported a dog in Office and Brother Thompsett moved that the Secretary be asked to leave the dog at home.’
It wasn’t cake but it had the same effect. This time I really couldn’t make a connection with my research but, again, it kept me going until the next coffee break. I stayed on till the archives shut, then I came out into the sunshine and spotted the heron in the pond outside.